Quality Control: A system of maintaining standards in manufactured products by testing a sample of the output against the specification.

Quality Policy: A Quality Policy is typically a brief statement that aligns with an organization’s purpose, mission, and strategic direction. It provides a framework for quality objectives and includes a commitment to meet applicable requirements as well as to continuous improvement.

A. Measuring Instruments List:

1.Vernier Caliper: Vernier calipers are widely used in scientific laboratories and in manufacturing for quality control measurements.

A. 1)

2.Vernier Height Gauge: A height gauge is a measuring device used for determining the height of objects, and for marking of items to be worked on. These measuring tools are used in metalworking or metrology to either set or measure vertical distances; the pointer is sharpened to allow it to act as a scriber and assist in marking out work pieces.

A. 1) (1)

3.Vernier Depth Gauge: Vernier depth gauge is used for measuring the depth of holes, recesses and distances from a plane surface to a projection.


4.Micrometer: A micrometer is an instrument used for making precise linear measurements of dimensions such as diameter, thickness, and lengths of solid bodies. It is made of a C-shaped frame with a movable jaw operated by an integral screw.

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5.Steel Rule: Steel rules, also called rulers, are essential in any shop when accuracy matters. Steel rules are inherently more accurate than folding rules.

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6.Steel Tape: A tape measure or measuring tape is a flexible ruler used to measure length or distance. It consists of a ribbon of cloth, plastic, fiber glass, or metal strip with linear measurement markings. It is a common measuring tool.


7.Plunger Dial Gauge: Plunger Dial Gauges are more commonly known as Dial Indicators. Dial Indicators are the most flawless tools to indicate the run-out i.e., the misalignment between the axis of the work piece and the axis of the rotation of a spindle. The aim of the dial is to reduce the deviation.

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8.Lever Dial Gauge: A Lever Dial Gauge, commonly known as the Dial Test Indicator, is designed to probe surfaces that cannot be reached with a normal dial gauge. It is useful both for alignment and measurement purposes.

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9.Radius Gauge: A radius gauge, also known as a fillet gauge is a tool used to measure the radius of an object. Radius gauges require a bright light behind the object to be measured. The gauge is placed against the edge to be checked and any light leakage between the blade and edge indicates a mismatch that requires correction.


10.Spirit Level: A spirit level, bubble level, or simply a level, is an instrument designed to indicate whether a surface is horizontal (level) or vertical (plumb). Two basic designs exist: tubular (or linear) and bull’s eye (or circular).

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11.Bore Dial Gauge: These are a range of gauges that are used to measure a bore’s size, by transferring the internal dimension to a remote measuring tool.

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12.Feeler Gauge: A feeler gauge is a tool used to measure gap widths. Feeler gauges are mostly used in engineering to measure the clearance between two parts.

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13.Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM): CMM, is a piece of equipment that measures the geometries of physical objects.


14.Analog Hardness Tester: hardness tester, device that indicates the hardness of a material, usually by measuring the effect on its surface of a localized penetration by a standardized rounded or pointed indenter of diamond, carbide, or hard steel.

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15.Portable Hardness Tester: The Portable Hardness Tester is a device for measuring the hardness of a material.

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16.Thread Plug Gauge: A thread gauge is used to check the dimensions of a specific thread form angle, pitch and diameter. Plug gauges are used to check internal threads, whereas ring gauges are used to check external threads. Each gauge comprises of two parts: a GO gauge and a NO GO gauge. Both parts should be used to check the thread.

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17.DFT Meter: Dry Film Thickness (DFT) Gauge measures paint and other coatings on metal substrates.

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B. Raw Material Testing Methods:

1.Non- Destructive Testing (NDT): Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) is used to collect information about a material in ways that do not alter it (i.e., without destroying it).

a) Visual NDT (VT): Visual Non-Destructive Testing is the act of collecting visual data on the status of a material. Visual Testing is the most basic way to examine a material or object without altering it in any way.

A. 1.1

b) Ultrasonic NDT (UT): Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Testing is the process of transmitting high- frequency sound waves into a material in order to identify changes in the material’s properties. In general, Ultrasonic Testing uses sound waves to detect defects or imperfections on the surface of a material created.

A. 1.2

c) Radiography NDT (RT): Radiography Non-Destructive Testing is the act of using gamma- or X- radiation on materials to identify imperfections. Radiography Testing directs radiation from a radioactive isotope or an X-ray generator through the material being tested and onto a film or some other kind of detector. The readings from the detector create a shadowgraph, which reveals the underlying aspects of the inspected material.

A. 1.3

d) Magnetic Particle NDT (MT): Magnetic Particle Non-Destructive Testing is the act of identifying imperfections in a material by examining disruptions in the flow of the magnetic field within the material. To use Magnetic Particle Inspection, inspectors first induce a magnetic field in a material that is highly susceptible to magnetization. After inducing the magnetic field, the surface of the material is then covered with iron particles, which reveal disruptions in the flow of the magnetic field. These disruptions create visual indicators for the locations of imperfections within the material.

A. 1.4

e) Dye Penetration NDT (DP): Dye Penetrant Penetrant Non-Destructive Testing (also called Liquid Penetrant Testing) refers to the process of using a liquid to coat a material and then looking for breaks in the liquid to identify imperfections in the material.

A. 1.5

f) Leak Testing (LT): Leak Non-Destructive Testing refers to the process of studying leaks in a vessel or structure in order to identify defects in it. Inspectors can detect leaks within a vessel using measurements taken with a pressure gauge, soap-bubble tests, or electronic listening devices, among others.

B. 1). f).

2) Destructive Testing (DT): Destructive Testing (DT) is used to collect information about a material in ways that do alter it (i.e., destroy it).

a) Tensile testing: Also called tension testing, this is a destructive testing technique that uses controlled tension applied to a sample material to see how it reacts. Tension could be applied to test certain loads or conditions, or to test a material’s failure point.

A. 2.1

b) Bend Test: Bend test is a quality control test that bends materials either in a guided or free form test to expose embrittlement.

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c) Charpy Impact Test: is a high strain DT method that determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during a fracture.

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d) 3 point bend testing: 3 point bend testing examines the soundness and flexibility (or ductility) of a material by taking a sample of it, called a coupon, and bending it in three points to a specified angle.

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e) Macro sectioning: Macro sectioning tests a small section of a welded material by polishing and etching it for examination.

A. 2.5

C. Quality Policy: A Quality Policy is typically a brief statement that aligns with an organization’s purpose, mission, and strategic direction. It provides a framework for quality objectives and includes a commitment to meet applicable requirements as well as to continuous improvement.

A. 2.6